А.Г. Марчук

Dear colleagues,

I’m pleased to present to you our new electronic journal, System Informatics.

Since 1991, our research institute has been publishing the System of Informatics series, which contains surveys and basic research works by Russian and foreign authors covering various aspects of computer science, programming and information technologies. The series has gained popularity with a broad range of specialists including programmers, engineers and mathematicians.

The electronic journal is designed to complement this series by providing prompt publishing of the most recent achievements in these research areas.

Alexander G. Marchuk,
Doctor of Physics and Mathematics,
Director, Institute of Informatics Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences


Synchronizing and Homing Experiments for Input/output Automata

The paper is devoted to studying the (‘gedanken’) experiments with input/output automata. We propose how to derive proper input sequences for identifying the final (current) state of the machine under experiment, namely synchronizing and homing sequences. The machine is non-initialized and its alphabet of actions is divided into disjoint sets of inputs and outputs. In this paper, we consider a specific class of such machines for which at each state the transitions only under inputs or under outputs are defined, and the machine transition diagram does not contain cycles labeled by outputs, i.e. the language of the machine does not contain traces with infinite postfix of outputs. Moreover, for each state where the transitions under inputs are defined, the machine has a loop under a special quiescence output. For such class of input/output automata, we define the preset synchronizing and homing experiments, establish necessary and sufficient conditions for their existence and propose techniques for their derivation. The procedures for deriving the corresponding (‘gedanken’) experiments for input/output automata are based on the well-studied solutions to these problems for Finite State Machines.

Verification of Operating System Components

The paper concerns recent advances in reaching the goal of industrial operating system (OS) verification. By industrial OS we mean a system actively used in some industrial domain, elaborated and maintained for a significant time, not a proof-of-concept OS developed with mostly research intentions. We consider decomposition of this goal into tasks related with various functional components of OS and various properties under verification, and application of different verification methods to those tasks. This is a trial to explicate and summarize the experience of several projects on various OS components and different OS features verification conducted in ISP RAS.

Security of Grid Structures with Cut-through Switching Nodes

Store-and-forward buffering of packets is traditionally used in modern network devices such as switches and routers. But sometimes it is a significant obstacle to the quality of service improvement because the minimal packet delivery time is limited by the multiplier of the number of intermediate nodes by the packet transmission time in the channel. The cut-through transmission of packets removes this limitation, because it uses only the head of packet, which contains the destination address, for the forwarding decision. Thus, the cut-through technology of packets transmission has considerable opportunities for the quality of service improving. Models for the computing grid with the cut-through forwarding have been developed in the form of colored Petri nets. The model is composed of packet switching nodes and generators of traffic; it can be supplied with malefactor models in the form of traffic guns disguised under regular multimedia traffic. The present work is the further development of methods of the rectangular communication grids analysis for nodes performing the cut-through switching. The methods are intended for application in the design of computing grids, in the development of new telecommunications devices, and in intelligent defense systems. Preliminary estimations show that the cut-through technology inherits some of the negative effects, which are associated with the traditional store-and-forward delivery of packets. A series of simulations revealed conditions of blocking a grid with its regular traffic. The results are applicable in the intellectual detection of intrusions and counter-measures planning.

Design and implementation a software for water purification with using automata approach and specification based analysis

The paper covers design and developing software for hardware plant for water purification, the architecture for it, received automaton diagrams of water preparing and normalization based on customer specifications and requirements. Discussing the components of the system, layers of abstractions, verification points, issues to build it. The way of developing well-qualified suchlike systems based on specifications is given.

Making void safety practical

Null pointer dereferencing remains one of the major issues in modern object-oriented languages. An obvious addition of keywords to distinguish between never null and possibly null references appears to be insufficient during object initialization when some fields declared as never null may be temporary null before the initialization completes. The proposed solution avoids explicit encoding of these intermediate states in program texts in favor of statically checked validity rules that do not depend on special conditionally non-null types. Object initialization examples suggested earlier are reviewed and new ones are presented to compare applicability of different approaches. Usability of the proposed scheme is assessed on open-source libraries with a million lines of code that were converted to satisfy the rules.

Verification of Definite Iteration over Arrays with a Loop Exit in C Programs

This work represents the further development of the method for definite iteration verification. It extends the mixed axiomatic semantics method suggested for C-light program verification. This extension includes a verification method for definite iteration over unchangeable arrays with a loop exit in C-light programs. The method includes an inference rule for the iteration without invariants, which uses a special function that expresses loop body. This rule was implemented in verification conditions generator, which is the part of our C-light verification system. To prove generated verification conditions an induction is applied which is a challenge for SMT-solvers. At proof stage the SMT-solver Z3 is used in our verification system. To overcome mentioned difficulty a rewriting strategy for verification conditions is suggested. It allows to verify the definite iteration automatically using Z3. Also the paper describes the application of the theorem prover PVS for automatic proving of such verification conditions. An example, which illustrates the application of these methods, is considered.

Automated Semantics-Driven Source Code Migration: a Pilot Prototype

The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the feasibility of automated code migration to a new set of programming libraries. Code migration is a common task in modern software projects. For example, it may arise when a project should be ported to a new library or to a new platform. The developed method and tool are based on the previously created by the authors formalism for describing libraries semantics. The formalism specifies a library behavior using a system of extended finite state machines (EFSM). The mentioned EFSMs are a foundation of the code migration method. This paper outlines the metamodel designed to specify library descriptions and proposes easy to use domain-specific language (DSL), which can be used to define models for particular libraries. The mentioned metamodel directly forms the code migration method which is also described in the paper. A process of migration splits into five steps, and for each step the algorithm was developed. Models and algorithms were implemented in the prototype of an automated code migration tool. The prototype was tested on both artificial code examples and several real-world open source projects. Results of the experiment indicate that code migration can be successfully automated with developed tool acting as the proof of concept. Models and methods designed form a basis for more powerful migration methods and full-featured automated code migration tools.

Towards Static Type-checking for Jolie

Static verification of source code correctness is a major milestone towards software reliability. The dynamic type system of the Jolie programming language, at the moment, allows avoidable run-time errors. A static type system for the language has been exhaustively and formally defined on paper, but still lacks an implementation. In this paper, we describe our steps toward a prototypical implementation of a static type checker for Jolie, which employs a technique based on a SMT solver.